## Physics: Course Description

In physics we study motion & forces, cosmology, electromagnetism, and waves/sound/light. Emphasis is on conceptual understanding and creative problem solving. Our physics standards are adopted from Next Generation Science Standards.

**Semester I Quarter 1 Standards: Mechanics***HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) - 1.*Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.*HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) - 2.*Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.*HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) - 3.*Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.**HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) - 4.*Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation to describe and predict the gravitational forces between objects.*HS-ESS1 (Earth’s Place in the Universe) - 4*. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.**Semester I Quarter 2 Standards: Energy***HS-PS3 (Energy) - 1.*Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.*HS-PS3 (Energy) - 2*. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects).*HS-PS3 (Energy) - 3.*Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.**HS-ESS1 (Earth’s Place in the Universe)**- 1.*Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.*HS-ESS1 (Earth’s Place in the Universe)*- 2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe.*HS-ESS2 (Earth’s Systems) - 5*. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. (Erosion, sediment transportation)**Semester II Quarter 3 Standards: Electromagnetism***HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) -4*. Use mathematical representations of Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the electrostatic forces between objects.*HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) -5*. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.*HS-PS2 (Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions) -6*. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.**HS-PS3 (Energy) - 5.*Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.**Semester II Quarter 4 Standards: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer***HS-PS4 (Waves) - 1.*Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.*HS-PS4 (Waves) - 2.*Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information.*HS-PS4 (Waves) - 3.*Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.*HS-PS4 (Waves) - 4.*Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.*HS-PS4 (Waves) - 5.*Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.*HS-ESS2 (Earth’s Systems) - 2.*Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems. (seiche?)